Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2013.66 In 1684, the English physician, botanist, and microscopist Nehemiah Grew (16411712) published the first scientific paper to describe the ridge structure of the skin covering the fingers and palms.Latent prints are often fragmentary and require the use of chemical methods, powder, or alternative light sources in order to be made clear.

Paris: Imprimerie royale:.Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2006.The anti-cancer medication capecitabine may cause the loss of fingerprints.

Validity means that these results are judged to accurately reflect the external criteria being measured.The ridges get thicker; the height between the top of the ridge and the bottom of the furrow gets narrow, so there is less prominence.